National Association of Artists' Organizations
VINCE LEO Minneapolis, August 1990

The ordering of events within a single year is approximate.

1905 A group of socialists and trade unionists meet in Chicagoand organize the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Based on principles of class conflict and on-the-job ac­tions, the IWW recruits unskilled workers, immigrants, non-whites, women, and migrant workers into what they hope will become "one big union."
The Niagara Movement-a committee of African Americans led by W.E.B. DU BOIS­ demands the abolition of all laws that promote racial discrimination.
1906 Race riots in Atlanta, GAleave 21 dead. Martial law is declared.
The first major sitdown strike in the U.S.is called by the IWW against General Electric in Schenectady, NY.
Montgomery, ALpasses the first segregationist n Jim Crow" streetcar law.
1908 Attorney General CHARLES BONAPARTE hires nine former secret- service agents to form a permanent Bureau of Investigation (BI).
The Eight, a group of painters led by ROBERT HENRI who had been consistently refused exhibition space because of their interest in the urban "underclass," hold a show at MacBeth Gallery, New York City.
The Society for the Prevention of Crime is formed and succeeds in banning" immoral" movies and Sunday screenings.
1 9 0 9 The IWW publishes the LITTLE RED SONGBOOK "to fan the flames of discontent. N Uprising of the 20,000: female garment workers strike in New York City.
After the town council in Fresno, CA passes a law forbidding the IWW from holding public meetings, union members and sympathizers make speeches in such numbers that the jails fill up and the city relents. The first in a series of "free speech battles."
In the wake of a violent riot in which over 2,000 African-American residents are driven from Springfield, IL, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.
SOLIDARITY, the official publication of the IWW, is established in Pittsburg, PA.The entire staff is arrested immediately.
1910 In an amendment to the Immigration Act, anarchists are forbidden by law to enter the U.S.
The first issue of THE CRISIS is produced by W.E.B. DU BOIS, the NAACP's director of publicity and research.
1911 The Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire kills 147 workers locked in by their New York Cityemployer.
THE MASSES, a socialist magazine, is founded. It regularly publishes illustrations and articles by JOHN SLOAN, ART YOUNG, LOUIS UNTERMEYER, and MARY HEATON VORSE.
The Carnegie Foundation for Charitable and Scholarly Endeavors is established by ANDREW CARNEGIE.
The Urban League is founded in New York City.
The Society of American Indians, dedicated to pan-Indianism and American citizen­ ship for Indians, is organized.
The Ferrer Center, an anarchist organization, is organized in New York City. EMMA GOLDMAN, one of the group's founders, persuades ROBERT HENRI to teach painting in the educational wing of the center, known as the Modern School.
1912 The Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) is formed in New York Cityto promote new art and new organizations of artists.
The U.S.invades Nicaragua.
MAN RAY attends Ferrer Center art classes.
The IWW leads a successful "Bread and Roses" textile-workers strike in Lawrence, MA.
Rrst appearance of IWW artist ERNEST RIEBE's comic strip MR. BLOCK.
The IWW holds an integrated convention in Alexandria, LA, purposely breaking Jim Crow laws.
1913 KATHERINE DREIER establishes the Cooperative Mural Workshops in New York Cityand dedicates it to working-class cultural revival.
In Washington, DC, 5,000 suffragists are attacked by onlookers as they march demanding a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote.

The IWW organizes the PATTERSON PAGEANT in New York Cityin which 1,500 striking Patterson textile workers perform a play written by JOHN REED. The audience numbers over 15,000.
The AAPS organizes the ARMORY SHOW, introducing such artists as MARCEL DU­ CHAMP, ROBERT HENRI, and PABLO PICASSO to the American mass audience.
The Wilson Administration approves racial segregation of the Post Office, the Bureau of Engraving, the Census Bureau, and the Treasury.
MARGARET SANGER's FAMILY LIMITATION, a birth-control manual, is published by IWW-member BILL SHATOFF.
Ridgefield Colony, a summer retreat for members of the Ferrer Center, is founded in New Jersey.
The term "lunatic fringe" is coined by THEODORE ROOSEVELT when he observes in a letter that groups with whom he associated" have always developed among their mem­ bers a large lunatic fringe."
1 91 4 ROBERT HENRI's students at the Ferrer Center include MOSES SOYER, BEN BENN, ROCK­ WELL KENT, and JOHN SLOAN.
The Free Theater is established at the Ferrer Center.
The National Birth Control League is founded by MARGARET SANGER.
ISADORA DUNCAN teaches dance to working~lass girls at the Cooperative Mural Work­ shops.
JOHN SLOAN creates CLASS WAR IN COLORADO, a cover illustration for THE MASSES.
U.S.troops land in Vera Cruz, Mexico.
MAN RAY designs covers for MOTHER EARTH, an anarchist publication edited by EMMA GOLDMAN and ALEXANDER BERKMAN. Later that year its publication is repressed by the U.S. government.
Thirteen women and children are killed in the Ludlow Massacre after JOHN D. ROCK­ EFELLER and Colorado Governor ELIAS AMMONS order National Guardsmen how to get a six pack to fire machine guns into striking miners' tents setting fire to the camp.
1915 MARCEL DUCHAMP meets MAN RAY at the Ridgefield Colony. MAN RAY self-publishes THE RIDGEFIELD GAZOOK, a proto-dadaist periodical.
JOHN WEICHSEL organizes the People's Art Guild in New York City.
The Taos Society of Artists (TSA) holds its first meeting in New Mexico. The group specializes in Western views and "Indian painting."
JOE HILL, IWW songwriter and organizer, is framed and executed by Utahauthorities. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK)-inspired in part by the D.W. GRIFFITH film THE CLANSMAN, later retitled THE BIRTH OF A NATION-reorganizes after being granted a charter by the State of Georgia.
THEODORE DREISER's novel THE GENIUS is Royal1688 suppressed.
1916 The Provincetown Players, including EUGENE O'NEILL, FLOYD DELL, SUSAN GLASPEL, and STELLA BALLANTYNE, emerges from the Ferrer Center Free Theater.
The first birt~ontrol clinic is opened by MARGARET SANGER, FANIA MINDELL, and ETHEL BURNE in New York City.
JOHN SLOAN resigns from THE MASSES because of an inflexible editorial policy making captions mandatory for all illustrations.
The U.S.invades the Dominican Republic.
191 7 LEON TROTSKY attends ROBERT HENRI's painting classes at the Ferrer Center.
U.S. Attorney General THOMAS GREGORY sponsors the American Protective League, an organization of 250,000 members who inform on "spies and radicals."
Protesting the National Academy's exhibitions policy, JOHN SLOAN organizes the Society of Independents, whose first exhibition is unjuried and hung in alphabetical order. MARCEL DUCHAMP, a founding member of the Society, resigns after his piece FOUNTAIN, signed "R. Mutt," is rejected.
The People's Art Guild exhibits 300 works by 89 artists in the offices of the NEW YORK JEWISH DAIL Y FORWARD; included are ROBERT HENRI, JOHN MARIN, MARSDEN HARTEY, and CHARLES DEMUTH.
The U.S.enters World War I.

The Espionage Act is passed, providing for the imprisonment of anyone impeding the war effort.
The Supreme Court approves the eight-hour workday under threat of a national rail­ way strike.
Committee on Public Information is created by executive order to control news and issue propaganda in the U.S.
Federal agents, prompted by the IWW's anti-war activities, raid the union's headquar­ ters in 24 U.S.cities คาสิโนออนไลน์.
The U.S. Postal Service effectively shuts down THE MASSES by withdrawing its mai~ ing privileges.
1918 The Sedition Act is passed by Congress. It forbids speaking out against the war ef­ fort, the American form of government, the CONSTITUTION, or the U.S. FLAG.
Due to constant harassment and arrests for radical activities, the Ferrer Center and the Modern School are forced to close down New York Cityoperations.
With the financial backing of GLORIA VANDERBILT WHITNEY, the Whitney Studio Club is founded in New York Cityas an artist co-op to provide for exhibition possibilities.
The TSA is commissioned by the U.S. Army to execute "range finder" paintings used by army training camps to instruct soldiers in estimating distances.
Early chapters of JAMES JOYCE's UL YSSES, published in the LITTLE REVIEW, are burned by the U.S. Post Office.
JAMES LARKIN, IWW leader, and EUGENE DEBS, Socialist Party leader, are imprisoned under the Espionage Act. Ninety five other IWW organizers are sent to prison for up to 20 years each.
QUANAH PARKER, a Comanche chief, founds the Native American Church in Ok­ lahoma to protect the ritual use of peyote.
\NW I ends.
The Federal Child Labor Law is declared unconstitutional.
Troops from the U.S., Great Britain, Italy, and Canadainvade the U.S.S.R. in an attempt to topple the Bolshevik government.
1919 MAN RAY publishes the proto-dadaist TNT, a "tirade against industrialists and the ex­ ploitation of workers. "
J. EDGAR HOOVER becomes Special Assistant to the Attorney General in charge of counter-radical activities in the General Intelligence Division.
The American Legion is formed in Paris.
The League of Nations is formed; the U.S.refuses to participate.
An actors' strike demanding recognition of the Actors' Equity Association closes theaters in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago. The union is even­ tually recognized.
New York Statepublic school teachers are made subject to dismissal for member­ ship in radical organizations.
The Women's Intern,ational League for Peace and Freedom is founded.
Race riots break out in over two dozen American cities, climaxing in Phillips County, AR where over 200 African Americans are killed by white mobs.
1920 Planned to coincide with the second anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, a series of "Red Raids" on radical organizations is staged by federal agents. Over 10,000 people in 23 cities are arrested in one night.
After decades of struggle, the 19th Amendment, providing for women's suffrage, is ratified.
KATHERINE DREIER and MARCEL DUCHAMP form the Societe Anonyme, an international permanent collection of modern art.
1921 NICOLA SACCO and BARTOLOMEO VANZETTI, two anarchists, are convicted on scanty evi­ dence of murdering a paymaster. They are executed in 1927.
JOHN SLOAN becomes an associate member of TSA.
The Chicago No-Jury Society is founded to exhibit all artists in the Great Lakesregion. 1923 The TSA claims record profits for its members, selling paintings throughout its U.S."circuit" of 13 cities.
Oklahomais placed under martial law because of the terrorist activities of the KKK.
Twelve castmembers of SHOLEM ASCH's play GOD OF VENGEANCE are arrested at the Apollo Theater for immoral behavior.
The term "modernist" is used to oppose that of "fundamentalist" in the debate con­ cerning the theory of evolution.
The Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau is opened by MARGARET SANGER to dis­ pense birth control information.
The Minimum Wage Law is ruled unconstitutional.
1924 The Chicago Society for Human Rights is organized to press for homosexual rights.
EUGENE O'NEILL's ALL GOD'S CHILL UN GOT WINGS, a play about a racially mixed couple, starring PAUL ROBESON, opens at the Provincetown Playhouse.
All native-born Indians are granted American citizenship.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association is founded by MARCUS GARVEY. It advocates the return of African Americans to Africa.
1925 Forty-thousand white-robed Ku Klux Klansmen march down Pennsylvania Avenuein Washington, DC.
The Socialist League for Industrial Democracy forms out of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. JOHN DEWEY serves as president.
The John Simon Guggenheim Fellowships are established.
JOHN SCOPES is convicted and fined $100 for teaching the theory of evolution in Day­ ton, TN.
The U.S. invades Nicaragua. An occupation force remains until 1933.
1926 The Dramatists' Guild is organized by playwrights as part of the Authors' Guild.
The Harmon Foundation begins the first in a series of annual exhibitions of African­ American artists.
The Book-of-the-Month Club is organized and within a year claims 40,000 members. 1 9 2 7 The TSA disbands as the demand for Western art fades.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is organized to present annual awards for noteworthy achievement in the motion picture industry.
1928 The Whitney Studio Galleries is formed from the Whitney Studio Club.
1929 The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is conceived by three wealthy collectors-MRS.
The Birth Control Clinical Research Center is raided by New York Citypolice on a complaint by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The case is later thrown out of court.
STRANGE INTERLUDE by EUGENE O'NEILL is banned in Boston. The Theater Guild moves the play to nearby Quincy, where it quickly sells out.
Black Tuesday stock market crash signals the beginning of the Great Depression. John Reed Clubs form in Chicago, Boston, Detroit, Newark, Seattle, Portland, and Philadelphiaas a consequence of the Union of Writers and Artists gathering in Kharkov, U.S.S.R. It emphasizes "art as a social weapon."
1 9 3 0 The Rim and Photo League, as a volunteer arm of the Workers' International Re­ lief, is founded to supply photographs and newsreel footage to workers' publications and organizations. Chapters are located in New York City, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Philadelphia.
Copies of ULYSSES, en route to a potential American publisher, are seized by U.S. Post Office officials.
All works by LEON TROTSKY are banned in Boston.
1931 ELIJAH MUHAMMAD forms the Nation of Islam, better known as the Black Muslims.
The Gibson Committee is formed by wealthy private citizens to provide artists with time to paint in exchange for farmwork.
The Whitney Museum of American Art opens. With the exception of its director, JULIA FORCE, the staff is made up entirely of artists.
The trial of the Scottsboro Boys, nine African-American boys accused of raping two white women, begins. It focuses attention on the racist bias of the court system.
1932 Unemployment in the U.S.reaches 13 million.

The Highlander Folk School is established near Chattanooga, TN.
The first art exhibit of the John Reed Clubs-THE SOCIAL VIEWPOINT IN ART­ opens in New York City.
The College Art Association works with the City of New York to employ artists cleaning statues.
1933 DIEGO RIVERA's mural PORTRAIT OF AMERICA, commissioned for Rockefeller Center, is covered over because it includes a portrait of LENIN.
The Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) is created to commission architects and ar­ tists to design and decorate U.S. public buildings. Within one year 4,000 artists are employed.
Federal Judge JOHN WOOLSEY lifts the ban on ULYSSES.
The Artists Union is formed to act as a bargaining agent for artists working on govern­ ment projects. Chapters are organized in 16 cities.
1934 The PWAP is accused of "communist tendencies" because murals in the COlT TOWER, San Francisco, include pictures of MARX's DAS KAPITAL and ofthe WEST­ ERN WORKER and the DAIL Y WORKER, two radical labor newspapers.
Catholic bishops found the Legion of Decency, whose moral ratings of movies is backed up by boycotts.
PAUL CADMUS's FLEET'S IN, a painting of sailors fraternizing with prostitutes, is with­ drawn from public display by the Corcoran Gallery at the request of the U.S. government.
The Artists Union along with the Artists Committee of Action begin publication of ART FRONT; writers include ELIZABETH MCCAUSLAND, HAROLD ROSENBERG, MEYER SHAPIRO, and KENNETH REXROTH.
1935 Congress establishes the Works Progress Administration (WPA), funding the Fed­ eral Art Project (FAP), the Federal Music Project (FMP), the Federal Theater Project (FTP), and the Federal Writers Project (FWP).
Alcoholics Anonymous is organized in New York City.
The General Federation of Women's Clubs endorses a federal ruling to allow birth control literature to be delivered by mail.
Living Newspaper, a current-events documentary theater, tours the U.S.as part of the FTP. Early segments include INJUNCTION GRANTED and ETHIOPIA.
The 81 changes its name to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
JACKSON POLLOCK joins the easel division of the WPA, where he is employed, off and

on, until 1943.
The Harlem Artists Guild forms to insure African-American participation in the WPA. John Reed Clubs disband and reorganize as the American Writers' League and American Artists' Congress.
The Community Art Centers program is begun by the WPA. Eventually there are over 100 art centers, many of which are constructed by WPA workers and staffed by FAP personnel who teach, curate, and create work.
1936 The Indian Arts and Crafts Board is established by the U.S. government to recog­ nize Native American culture.
The WPA organizes INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGN to collect and disseminate ideas and works in the "popular arts."
Artists Union conventions in the East and Midwest draw thousands of participants. They demand a permanent Federal Art Project and vote to protest fascism by boy­ cotting the OL YMPIC ART EXHIBITION held in conjunction with the BERLIN OL YMPIC GAMES.
One year after its inception, the WPA's arts projects employ 40,000 artists in public service projects nationwide.
1937 In a Flint, MI sitdown strike, 48,000 workers occupy a GM plant for 44 days and es­ tablish the United Auto Workers as their official bargaining agent.
The Farm Securities Administration (FSA) is established. Its photographic arm will employ, among others, WALKER EVANS, DOROTHEA LANGE, MARION POST WOLCOn, and ARTHUR ROTHSTEIN.
WPA PROJECT #891's production of MARC BLlTZSTEIN's THE CRADLE WILL ROCK is censored by the WPA. ORSON WELLES and JOHN HOUSEMAN leave FTP and form the Mercury Theater.
The group American Abstract Artists forms in New York City; it is dedicated to ab­ straction as an antidote to nationalism and regionalism.
Ten strikers are shot dead by police in the Memorial Day Massacre at Chicago's Re­ public Steel Plant.
Congress reduces funds to the WPA by 25 percent. Union artists protest cuts and thousands go on strike. They are all either given pink slips or docked pay.
PINS AND NEEDLES, a play by a group of garment workers calling themselves Labor Stage, breaks attendance records for musical comedies in New York City.
The Artists Union becomes CIO Local 60 of the United Office and Professional Workers of America, changing its name to United American Artists and including the Commerical Artists' and Designers' Union and the Cartoonists' Guild.
193 8 The Artists Union opens its own gallery in Chicago.
The House Committee to Investigate Un-American Activities (HUAC) is created by Congress. It immediately attacks the WPA, calling it "a hotbed of radicalism."
FTP units in 11 cities stage Living Newspaper's ONE THIRD OF A NATION, a graphic presentation of poor housing conditions in the U.S.During the play critics of the New Deal are quoted directly from the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
1939 CHANGING NEW YORK, a documentary project by BERENICE ABBOTI's WPA team, is published by Dutton.
In a move designed to decrease domestic deficit financing and quiet accusations of com­ munism and socialism leveled at the New Deal, 8,000 WPA personnel are laid off.
Sitdown strikes are declared illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court.
The House Appropriations Committee forbids the use of federal funds for theater activities, abruptly ending the FTP.
The FBI is given the permanent assignment of safeguarding the internal security of the U.S.
HARLEM DOCUMENT, a documentary project by the Photo League, is exhibited at the SAN FRANCISCO WORLD'S FAIR.
The Relief Bill of 1940 barely passes Congress. It requires a loyalty oath of FAP ar­ tists and specifically excludes communists from the program.
1 9 4 0_ FAP artist AUGUST HENKEL, who tells a reporter" as an artist, I'm a good bricklayer," refuses to sign the loyalty oath in the FAP contract. His murals at Brooklyn's Floyd Bennet Airport are taken down and destroyed.
The Lucy Flower Technical School in Chicago plasters over the FAP mural WOMAN'S CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICAN PROGRESS by EDWARD MILLMAN.
STUART DAVIS and MEYER SHAPIRO lead 30 other artists and critics who withdraw from the American Artists' Congress because it will not condemn the U.S.S.R.'s inva­ sion of Finland. They form the Federation of American Painters and Sculptors to promote "the welfare of free and progressive art in America. "
1941_ Pearl Harbor is bombed. The U.S. declares war on Japan. Germany and Italy de­ clare war on the U.S.
The chief of the Army Corps of Engineers endorses a plan for defense-related art projects using some WPA artists.
ANGELA CALOMIRIS is recruited by the FBI to infiltrate the Photo League.
The total number of degrees conferred by U.S. colleges in the fine and applied arts is 3,428.
1942_ The Birth Control Federation of America becomes the Planned Parenthood Fed­ eration of America.
LEE KRASNER heads a WPA team that includes JACKSON POLLOCK and BEN BENN. It makes window displays advertising war-training courses in New York colleges.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is founded in Chicago, where it stages a series of restaurant sit-ins protesting segregation.
1943 All funding for the WPA stops, abolished by executive order.
ARSHILE GORKY's murals in Newark Airport "disappear" when the U.S. Army takes over administration of the site.

Lacking dues-paying members, United American Artists is forced to disband. A new group, the Artists' League of America, is organized without union affiliation.
1944 The U.S. ratifies the United Nations (UN) charter.
1 94 5 WN II ends in Europe.
The war with Japanends when the U.S.drops atomic bombs on Hiroshimaand Nagasaki.
Members of the Artists' League of America form Artists' Equity, open only to ar­ tists with professional credentials.
1946 The U.S. State Department puts together AMERICAN INDUSTRY SPONSORS ART, a program in which corporate collections are used to mount exhibitions that travel to foreign countries.
The U.S. State Department finances ADVANCING AMERICAN ART, purchasing works from over 20 contemporary American painters. It opens in the Metropolitan Museum in New York Cityand then travels to South America and Europe.
194 7 Congressman FRED BUSBEY (R-IL) calls the ADVANCING AMERICAN ART exhibition a "disgrace to the United States" and "infiltrated by communists." All funding is withheld.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is organized under the National Security Act. The Photo League is placed on Solicitor General TOM CLARK's list of subversive or­ ganizations. All members are blacklisted, in effect denying them any form of meaningful employment.
The Taft-Hartley Bill is passed by Congress, preventing U.S. government employees from striking or becoming members of the Communist Party.
The NAACP presents the UN with AN APPEAL TO THE WORLD, a petition to end ra­ cism written by W.E.B. DU BOIS.
Congress cites the 10 screenwriters known as the Hollywood Ten for contempt after they refuse to cooperate with HUAC's attempt to blacklist "subversives" in the mo­ tion picture industry. Most serve one-year terms in prison.
1 948 Two million federal employees are investigated by the FBI regarding their communist sympathies.
LLOYD GOODRICH, curator at the Whitney Museum, proposes a new arts organiza­ tion-the Committee on Government and Art-to examine the feasability of government funding of art.
1949 JACOB JAVITS (D-NY) introduces a joint resolution in the House calling for a National Theater, Opera, and Ballet to be funded by the U.S. government.
Congress exempts the CIA from normal limitations on the expenditure and disclosure of funds.
1950 The U.S. enters the Korean War as part of the UN force.
Henry Hay founds the Mattachine Society in San Francisco. While attempting to re­ main secret, the Mattachine Society provides gay men with a sense of community and presses for gay rights.
The FBI institutes the "communist infiltration program" (COMINAL) to infiltrate the socialist and labor movements, working closely with Senator JOSEPH MCCARTHY (R-WI) and HUAC.
President TRUMAN orders the U.S. Army to seize the railroads to prevent a nationwide rail strike.
1951 Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs EDWARD BARRETT declares that the U.S.is losing the "cultural war" with the Soviet Union.
The Photo League, unable to raise funds or attract new members, dissolves.
1 9 5 2 The CIA funds the magazine ENCOUNTER, published in Englandand dedicated to the idea that "cultural advancement and political freedom are interdependent."
A group calling itself Postfolks organizes a network to distribute conceptual artworks using the postal system.
The Supreme Court holds that "subversives" can be barred from teaching in the pu~ Iic schools.
The first year in the 71 years since records have been kept that an African American was not lynched in the U.S.Congress still refuses to pass anti-lynching legislation.
1953 The Korean War ends.

Representative GEORGE DONDERO (R-MI) attacks ANTON REFREGIER's WPA mural at a San Francisco Post Office for having communist imagery. The attack galvanizes the Amer­ ican Federation of Arts, Artists' Equity, and the American Section of the Intemational Association of Art Critics to rally in defense of the work, which is saved.
Artists BEN SHAHN, ALEXANDER CALDER, and GEORGIA O'KEEFFE are placed under FBI surveillance.
The Ford Foundation is founded with $15 million lito help fight restrictions on free­ dom of thought, inquiry, and expression."
The CIA organizes a coup in Iranthat places the Shah back on his throne.
General Electric announces that all employees with communist sympathies will be discharged.
ONE MAGAZINE, a periodical devoted to gay life, begins publication. The U.S. Post Office and the Los Angeles Circuit Court soon rule that it cannot be sent through the mails.
1954 The books of WILHELM REICH, exploring the psychology of sexuality, are burned pub­ licly by the U.S. government.
The Commission on Fine Arts issues a report recommending federal arts funding, but its recommendations are defeated by vote of the House subcommittee.
The American Federation of Arts issues its report STATEMENT ON ARTISTIC FREE­ DOM, which emphasizes the symbolic importance of artistic freedom in the U.S.
The National Council on the Arts and Government is formed to lobby the U.S. government on behalf of artists.
Racial segregation is declared illegal in the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education.
The FBI places the Committee for Negro Arts on its communist blacklist.
The CIA organizes a small army to overthrow President JACOBO ARBENZ in Guatemala. 1955 President EISENHOWER calls for the establishment of a Federal Advisory Commis­ sion on the Arts within the Department of Health, Education and Welfare to propose arts funding.

ANN HALPRIN forms the Dancers' Workshop Company in San Francisco. Coopera­ tive performances are staged with TRISHA BROWN, YVONNE RANIER, and STEVE PAXTON, often on outdoor platforms.
President EISENHOWER persuades Congress to pass a $5 million emergency fund for cultural exchange.
MARTIN LUTHER KING is elected to head the Montgomery Improvement Association. The Daughters of Bilitis, a lesbian organization, is founded in San Franciscoand begins pUblication of THE LADDER.
ROSA PARKS, a Montgomery, ALseamstress and member of the NAACP, is arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white rider. The African-American com­ munity of the city stages a one-day boycott that eventually grows into a movement headed up by the Montgomery Improvement Association.
1956 The Dallas County Patriotic Council, made up of rightwing artists, attacks SPORT IN AMERICA, a USIA-sponsored exhibition, because it contains work by artists linked to left-wing organizations. The Dallas Museum trustees vote to keep the exhibition in its entirety.
The Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA) opens in a piano ware­ house in downtown Winston-Salem, NC.
The NAACP handles the legal suit of AUTHERINE LUCY, the first African-American stu­ dent at the University of Alabama, after she is suspended due to campus violence.
1957 Arts Advisory Council legislation fails to pass Congress after WHEELER WILLIAMS, a member of the conservative American Artists Professional League, testifies to the possibility of a communist and/or modernist takeover of the council.
1958 The John Birch Society, a radical conservative organization, is founded by ROBERT WELCH.
Three thousand Lumbee Indians drive off a KKK demonstration in Robeson County, NC.
The Supreme Court rules that ONE MAGAZINE has a legal right to go through the mail.
1959 The National Conference of Artists is organized at Atlanta University to promote the work of African-American artists.

ALLAN KAPROW stages 18 HAPPENINGS IN 6 PARTS at the Reuben Gallery in New York City.
1960 A strike by the Theater Guild closes down all theaters in New York City.
The Socialist League for Industrial Democracy becomes Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is formed at Shaw Uni­ versity in Raleigh, NC.
A CIA U-2 reconnaissance plane is shot down over Russia.
The New York State Council on the Arts is established on a temporary basis, be­ coming permanent two years later.
1961 The Artists Tenants Association (ATA) forms in New York Cityto protest rezoning laws that threaten artists lofts.
GEORGE MACIUNAS originates Fluxus, a cooperative network of conceptual artists. The CIA-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion fails.
Secretary of Labor ARTHUR GOLDBERG settles the American Federation of Musici­ ans' strike against the Metropolitan Opera and includes a provision for federal subsidizing of the arts.
CORE initiates "freedom rides" to desegregate interstate buses. Many buses are at­ tacked ~y the KKK.
Total number of degrees conferred by U.S. colleges in the fine and applied arts is 13,612.
1962 President JOHN KENNEDY appoints AUGUST HECKSHER as Special Consultant to the Arts.
5DS issues THE PORT HURON STATEMENT, which advocates "participatory democracy. "
The FBI begins a Counter-Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) in an attempt to discredit
The CIA activates Operation Mongoose, enlisting Mafia hit men in an attempt to as­ sassinate RDEL CASTRO.
ED PLUNKETT invents the name New York Correspondance (sic) School for RAY JOHNSON's mail art network.
CESAR CHAVEZ organizes the United Farm Workers Union (UFW).
The Judson Dance Group is founded in New York Cityby members of the Dancers' Workshop. CAROLEE SCHNEEMAN's MEAT lOYis staged at Judson Memorial Church.
Institute of American Indian Art is organized in Santa Fe, NM.
Citizens for Decent Literature is formed and immediately attacks HAROLD ROBBINS's THE CARPETBAGGERS and HENRY MILLER's THE TROPIC OF CANCER as "obscene."
Artists for CORE hold its first benefit auction.
1 9 6 3 THE ARTS AND THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, a report submitted by AUGUST HECK­ SHER, recommends the formation of a National Arts Foundation.
The ATA pickets DAVINCI's MONA LISA at the Metropolitan Museum of Art to pro­ test rezoning laws.
SNCC members JOHN O'NEAL and GILBERT MOSES establish the Free Southern Theater in Mississippi.
SNCC, SCLC, and CORE cosponsor MARCH ON WASHINGTON. MARTIN LUTHER KING delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech.
The AFL-CIO adopts a plan to end racial discrimination in the workplace. Ninety commercial galleries close down in sympathy with ATA.
ROBERT ALLlOU, a Fluxus poet, coins the term ETERNAL NETWORK. The ARMORY SHOW is r~reated in its original setting.
The United Auto Workers give SDS $5,000 to organize an Economic Research and Action Project for a poor community in Cleveland.
A sniper kills NAACP organizer MEDGER EVERS in Jackson, MS.
ROMARE BEARDEN, ALVIN HOLLINGSWORTH, and WILLIAM MAJORS form The Spiral, an African-American artists' organization, to aid the civil rights movement.

Eight senators pass HUBERT HUMPHREY's (D-MN) National Arts and Cultural Develop­ ment Act by a late-night voice vote.
The Museum of African Art/Frederick Douglas Institute is founded in Washing­ ton, DC.
1964 Public Law 88-579 is signed by President JOHNSON, creating the National Council on the Arts advisory panel made up of 24 private citizens.
CASSIUS CLAY defeats SONNY LISTON for the heavyweight title and declares himself a Black ~~uslim, changing his name to MUHAMMAD ALI.
JOHN SINCLAIR, MAGDALENE ARNDT, and GEORGE TYSCH form the Artists Workshop in Detroit.
ART KLEPS founds the Nee-American (Boo Hoo) Church, based on the use of psy­ chedelics as a sacrament.
Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bars all discrimination accord­ ing to gender, race, or religion.
The National Indian Youth Council sponsors "fish-ins" to protest transgressions of Indian fishing rights along rivers in the State of Washington.
Led by MARIO SAVIO, students at the University of California at Berkeley form the Free Speech Movement to protest the banning of political activities on campus.
MALCOLM X splits with the Black Muslims and forms the Organization for Afro-Amer­ ican Unity.
1965 The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act authorizes Congress to appropriate funds for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH).
The UFW begins its boycott of Californiagrapes. The U.S.invades the Dominican Republic.
The New York Graphic Workshop distributes the Rrst Class Mail Art Exhibition #1. Teatro Campesino is established by San Francisco Mime Troupe veteran LUIS VALDEZ in conjunction with a United Farm Workers strike in Delano, CA.
The first contingent of U.S. Marines lands in Vietnam.
- - - -
- ---

Race riots in the Watts section of Los Angelesleave 35 dead and $200 million in damages.
END YOUR SILENCE, a full-page ad in the NEW YORK TIMES sponsored by artists,
protests U.S. involvement in Vietnamand the Dominican Republic.
SDS organizes the first march against the Vietnam War in Washington, DC. CLYDE WARRIOR forms the National Indian Youth Council.
ROBERT LOWELL, supported by 20 artists and writers, refuses an invitation to read at the White House, citing U.S. military intervention in Vietnamand the Dominican Republic.
1966 The Whitney Museum of American Art inaugurates its new building in New York City.
IRVING PETLIN organizes a committee of Los Angelesartists to finance the TOWER FOR PEACE, constructed by MARK DI SUVERO with work sent from artists all over the U.S.
The Black Panther Party (BPP) begins police surveillance in Oakland, CA.
The Friends of Cast Iron Architecture (FCIA) forms in New York City.
PETE SEEGER inspires the creation of the sloop CLEARWATERto clean up the Hud-
son River.
The National Organization of Women (NOW) is organized.
GEORGE MACIUNAS, with money from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Kaplan Fund, begins Ruxhous Cooperatives Inc. to renovate SoHo (South of Houston St.) buildings into cooperative artists lofts.
1967 Total NEA funding for Visual Arts is $735,000; 60 individual artists receive $5,000 each.
The National Student Association admits to having received more than $3 million from the CIA for use in overseas programs.
An American section of the Situationist International is formed in New York City. Smokehouse Associates is formed by WILLIAM T. WILLIAMS and MELVIN EDWARDS to paint murals on decaying walls in Harlem.
The Black Nationalist COINTELPRO Group is formed at the FBI to undermine the BPP, the Republic of New Africa, and SNCC.
Over 600 artists form Angry Artists Against the War in Vietnam.

The NEA withdraws financial support from Ruxhous to instead fund the Westbeth Pro­ ject, a plan to renovate a former Bell Labs building into artists' living and working spaces.
Under the aegis of the Artists and Writers Project, a 10 ft. by 120 ft. COLLAGE OF INDIGNATION is installed at Loeb Student Center, New York University.
The Artists Workshop in Detroitshuts down after a massive drug bust.
The Organization of Black-American Culture paints WALL OF RESPECT, a mural in Chicago's South Side that helps launch the contemporary mural movement.
MUHAMMAD ALI refuses to join the U.S. Army on the grounds of h.is religious convic­ tions. He is convicted of draft evasion; the World Boxing Association and the New York State Boxing Commission withdraw recognition of his title.
1968 The NEA helps create the American Rim Institute.
GEORGE DREWERY founds Beyond Baroque in Venice, CAas a space for artists and writers to meet.
The White Panther Party is formed by JOHN SINCLAIR at an MC 5 recording session. Yippies (members of the Youth Intemational Party), led by ABBIE HOFFMAN and JERRY RUBIN, throw money from the visitors gallery onto the floor of the New York Stock Exchange.
The Tet offensive, Vietnam.
The Mexican American Liberation Art Front is formed in San Diegoto discuss work and organize exhibitions.
DENNIS BANKS and GEORGE MITCHELL found the American Indian Movement (AIM) in Minneapolis.
MARTIN LUTHER KING is assassinated. Riots break out in every major American city. The NEA matches by one half the funding of inner~ity arts programs in the 16 largest U.S.cities.
The Studio Museum opens in Harlem.
Ant Farm, an artists' collective, is created in San Franciscoand Houstonby CHIP LORD and DOUG MICHAELS.
Auxhous controls 18 SoHobuildings but ends operations. ROBERT KENNEDY is assassinated.
ANDY WARHOL is shot by VALERIE SOLAN IS, founder of the Society for Cutting Up Men (SCUM).
Urban Planning Aid (UPA) is founded in Bostonwith funding from the Office of
Economic Opportunity to give technical assistance to community activists. It helps
produce over 100 videotapes before ending in 1980.
Cityarts Workshop, emphasizing murals and mosaics, is founded in New York City. SDS and other groups clash with police at the Democratic National Convention in Chi­ cago. U.S. Army sources later reveal that one in six demonstrators was either a member of the Chicago Police force or an undercover FBI agent.
1969 The Black Emergency Cultural Coalition, led by photographer ROY DECARAVA, is formed to protest the HARLEM ON MY MIND exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. A series of demands are also made on the Whitney Museum, in­ cluding the purchase and exhibition of more African-American artists.
Court testimony reveals that the FBI tapped MARTIN LUTHER KING's phone line.
EI Museo del Barrio, featuring work by Puerto Rican artists, opens in New York City. Art Workers Coalition (AWC) is founded when 300 artists meet at the School of Visual Arts in New York Cityto promote museum reform. Their list of demands to MoMA includes free admission, night hours, an artists' curatorial committee, exhibi­ tions in African-American and Hispanic neighborhoods, and the recognition of women and minority artists.
The Weathermen faction splits from 5DS.
Appalshop is founded in Whitesburg, KYas a joint experiment of the Office of Economic Opportunity and the American Film Institute. When sponsors terminate support. trainees establish Appalshop as an independent media arts center.
NEA grants total $6,370,639; 30 individual artists receive $5,000 each.
The Freedom of Information Act is passed, enabling ordinary citizens limited access to government documents.

The Slack Academy of Arts and Sciences is formally established to honor and en­ courage contributions to African-American culture.
Women Artists in Revolution (WAR) forms in protest over the WHITNEY ANNUAL, which includes only 8 women out of 143 artists.
Gain Ground is opened by ROBERT NEWMAN in New York Citywith performance and installation works by VITO ACCONCI, ELEANOR ANTIN, DAN GRAHAM, and others.
Black Panther FRED HAMPTON is murdered in an FBI/COINTELPRO raid in Chicago. HOLLY SOLOMON opens 98 Greene Street with performances and installations by GORDON MATIA-CLARK, ROBERT KUSHNER, TAYLOR MEAD, WAYNE COUNTY, and others.
The AWC forces the Metropolitan Museum in New York Cityto postpone the open­ ing of NEW YORK PAINTING AND SCULPTURE 1940-1970, in observance of the moratorium on the Vietnam War.
The AWC decides against starting an alternative system of galleries and opts to af­ fect MoMA by placing an artist at the trustee level.
After unremitting police harassment, a group of transvestites spark several days of ri­ oting at the Stonewall Bar in New York City. Stonewall Unions- gay political organizations-begin to form across the U.S.
The first National Chicano Youth Conference is held in Denver, where the concept of Aztlan-a Chicano nation-is conceived.
The AWC publishes poster Q. AND BABIES TOO? A. AND BABIES TOO, to protest the My Laimassacre in which hundreds of Vietnamese civilians were murdered by American troops.
The Guerilla Art Action Group (GAAC) removes MALEVICH's WHITE ON WHITEfrom a MoMA wall and replaces it with a manifesto calling for MoMA to: 1) sell one million dollars of artwork and redistribute the money to the poor; 2) decentralize; 3) close until the end of the Vietnam War.
An organization calling itself Indians of All Tribes occupies Alcatraz Islandin pro­ test over broken treaties.
Black & Red begins a publishing project in Detroit. Among their first publications is GUY DEBORD's SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE.

1970 U.S. forces invade Cambodia. In the demonstrations that follow, four students are killed at Kent State University in Ohio, and two are killed at Jackson State Univer­ §!!Y in Mississippi.
The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), a net­ work of community self-help organizations, forms its first chapter in Little Rock, AR.
Contradiction, the first of the prcrsituationist groups in the San Francisco Bayarea, is formed, followed by Negation and Diversion.
Galeria de la Raza begins storefront exhibitions of the work of Chicano artists in San Francisco's Mission District.
The New York Art Strike is formed when Art Workers Coalition, Guerilla Art Ac­ tion, and Art Workers United stage a sitdown strike at the Metropolitan Museum of Art to protest war, racism, sexism, and repression. They later decide to boycott the VENICE BIENNALE.
The first EARTH DA Y demonstrations are organized to protest ecological pollution. The Gray Panthers are organized to protect the rights of senior citizens.
The Workshops category, providing funding to artists' organizations, becomes part of the NEA Visual Arts Program.
Artists and Writers Protest Against the War in Vietnam and the AWC begin a let­ ter-writing campaign to PABLO PICASSO, asking that he withdraw GUERNICAfrom MoMA to protest American involvement in Vietnam.
The UFW forces grape growers to sign union contract after a five-year struggle.
As the result of a COINTELPRO scam, JOHN SINCLAIR, head of Detroit's White Pan­ ther Party, is sentenced to nine and one half years in maximum security prison for the possession of two marijuana cigarettes.
THE PEOPLE'S FLAG SHOW, held at the Judson Church in New York City, is closed and its organizers found guilty of flag desecration.
JEFFREY LEW opens 112 Greene Street.
MoMA's KYNASTON MCSHINE organizes INFORMATION, an exhibition of conceptual art, which quickly becomes a forum for protesting the U.S. presence in Vietnam.
The Basement Workshop, an Asian-American artists' organization, is founded in New York City.
The Los Angeles Council of Women Artists is formed to protest the Los Angeles County Museum's ART AND TECHNOLOGY exhibition, which includes no women.
AIM occupies the MAYFLOWER /I on Thanksgiving Day.
Women Students and Artists for Black Liberation, led by FAITH RINGGOLD, protest the all-white-male composition of Art Strike's COUNTER-BIENNALEto be held in New York City.
GORDON MATTA-GLARK digs a hole in the basement of 112 Greene Street and plants a cherry tree.
JUDY CHICAGO founds the first feminist educational program for women in art at Cal­ ifornia State University, Fresno.
The Chicago Mural Group forms.
A panel appointed by President JOHNSON to investigate obscenity and pornography is­ sues its final report urging the repeal of virtually all obscenity laws.
1 9 7 1 NEA funding reaches $15 million.
The Supreme Court overturns MUHAMMAD ALI's conviction.
Los Toltecas en Aztlan opens Centro Cultural de la Raza in san Diego. The Black Emergency Cultural Coalition organizes a prison art program.
In response to lobbying by the Congressional Black Caucus and community activ­ ists, the NEA begins making grants through a new Expansion Arts Program for community-based arts activities.
The RepUblic of New Africa calls for an independent black nation composed of five southern states.
West-East Bag (WEB) forms to construct a nationwide network of women artists. New York Governor NELSON ROCKEFELLER orders state troopers to storm Attica prison after talks over hostages break down. A total of 31 prisoners and nine hostages are killed.

Artists Space opens at the Committee for Visual Arts in New York City. ELEANOR ANTIN begins 100 BOOTS, a mail art project about the travels of 100 boots. F-Space Gallery opens in a shopping mall in Orange County, CA.
The Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI breaks into FBI headquarters in Media, PAand makes public evidence of COINTELPRO activities. COINTELPRO shuts down.
HANS HAACKE's exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum is cancelled because HAACKE's SHALOPSKY £T. AL. MANHATTAN REAL ESTATE HOLDINGS, A REAL­ TIME SOCIAL SYSTEM, AS OF MAY 1, 1971. deals with "specific social situations" not considered art.
CARL ANDRE exhibits a row of squares on the floor of 112 Greene Street. People United to Save Humanity (PUSH) is founded by JESSE JACKSON.
The Supreme Court rules that the NEW YORK TIMES can publish the PENTAGON PAPERS, a top-secret Defense Department document leaked by DANIEL ELLSBERG.
Guerrilla Art Action Group begins mail art project in which they send instructions to Nixon Administration officials (To NIXON-REPEAT ALOUD "EAT WHAT YOU KILL '').
ALANNA HEISS produces a three-day art festival under the ramps of the Brooklyn Bridge. Participants include CARL ANDRE, SOL LE Win, MABOU MINES, RUDY BURCHARDT, and GORDON MAnA-CLARK.
Short Term Activities Grants program is initiated by the NEA to fund "individual artists or groups engaged in process and performance art activities, technological art, artist­ generated exhibitions, and cooperative ventures."
Total number of degrees conferred by U.S. colleges in the fine and applied arts is 41,368.
1972 NEA funding reaches $29,750,000.
The Visual Studies Workshop in ROChester, NY begins publication of AFTERIMAGE,
a magazine dedicated to video, independent film, photography, and artists' books.
ALlANA HEISS begins the Institute for Art and Urban Resources under the funding
umbrella of the Municipal Art Society, using a Coney Island warehouse for exhibitions.
After consistent criticism by two PBS news shows- THIRTY MINUTES WITH and WASHINGTON WEEK IN REVIEW-President NIXON vetoes the entire Corporation for Public Broadcasting budget.
Point Blank, a group of situationists, detourns the U.C. Berkeley student newspaper, printing the LAST DAIL Y CAL.
JUDY CHICAGO, SUZANNE LACY, MIRIAM SHAPIRO, and others take over a rurH:town house in downtown Los Angelesand transform it into an installation piece titled WOMANHOUSE.
VITO ACCONCI presents SEED BED at Sonnabend Gallery, New York City. Specta­ tors walk over a ramp in the gallery while ACCONCI masturbates underneath.
The NEA funds the first Art Critics Fellowships, administered by the Visual Arts Pro­ gram; 10 critics receive $3,000 each.
AIR and SoHo 20, women's cooperative galleries, are established in New York City. SOHO ARTS FESTIVAL FOR MCGOVERN, a benefit for the Democratic presidential canditate, is held in New York City.
The FBI infiltrates AIM.
ARTS, ARTFORUM, ART IN AMERICA, and ART NEWS all donate space to the NEA to advertise its grants.
Self-Help Graphics, a Chicano arts organization and workshop, is founded in East Los Angeles.
ADRIAN PIPER constructs a series of performances in which she takes on an alter ego­ MYTHIC BEING-a young black male totally conditioned by race relations in the U.S.
The pesticide DDT is banned.
NEA Short Term Activities grants total $73,000 and include grants for several artist­ run organizations.
1973 The NEA initiates Workshops subheading of the Public Art Program to facilitate fund­ ing "alternative spaces."
The Vietnam Peace Agreement is signed in Paris.
The Inner Cities Mural Program is discontinued at the NEA.

Kearny Street Workshop, an Asian-American community arts center, is founded in San Francisco.
CHRIS BURDEN buys air time on Los Angeles TV, "advertising" himself as a conce~ tual artist.
The Supreme Court "legalizes" women's right to reproductive freedom in Roe v. Wade. Womanspace Gallery opens in the Women's Building in Los Angeles.
New Yorkartists reproduce a revolutionary mural from Chileto protest the CIA spon­ sored overthrow of Chilean President SALVADORE ALLENDE.
NEW YORK CORRESPONDANCE SCHOOL SHOW, curated by RAY JOHNSON and MARCIA TUCKER, opens at the Whitney Museum of American Art.
Demanding guaranteed work or pay, dancers strike the New York City Ballet.
The New York Correspondance School dies with a "dead letter" to the obit column of the NEW YORK TIMES.
Artists Space, dedicated to showing undiscovered artists, opens up at 15 Wooster Streetin New York City, under the direction of HELENE WEINER.
Museum workers at MaMA go on strike.
FCIA succeeds in having SoHorezoned City Landmark Status, closing it off to high­ rise development.
NAME Gallery opens in Chicago.
AIM occupies Wounded Knee. General ALEXANDER HAIG directs the U.S. Army inva­ sion. Hundreds of casualties are suffered by AIM members.
MARGO ST. JAMES organizes Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics (COYOTE), a prostitutes' rights group.
The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CET A) is enacted by Congress, pro­ viding federal public employment to chronically unemployed groups including artists. Starting full-time salary is $10,000 per year.
The American Psychiatric Association overturns its 100-year-old position and de­ clares that homosexuality is not a disease.

The Boston Women's Health Book Collective publishes the first edition of OUR BODIES, OURSELVES.
1974 The San Francisco group Negation stages all night graffiti blitzes, employing slo­ gans like MURDER THE ORGANIZERS OF YOUR BOREDOM.
CHRIS BURDEN has pins stuck into his body while performing BACK TO YOU at 112 Greene Street.
In Montague, MA, SAM LOVEJOY topples a weather-monitoring tower erected in pre­ paration for a Northeast Utilities nuclear reactor, claiming it was an act of civil disobedience.
Artpark, a publicly funded state park dedicated especially to outdoor and environmen­ tal sculpture, opens in Lewistown, NY.
Los Angeles Institute for Contemporary Art (LAICA) and its publication JOURNAL are formed by ROBERT L. SMITH.
President NIXON resigns in light of impending impeachment hearings regarding Water­ gate break-ins.
The Symbionese Liberation Army kidnaps PATTY HEARST and demands $70 in food for every needy person in California.
And/Or opens in seattle.
The San Francisco Art Workers' Coalition is formed to make publicly supported arts institutions accountable.
The Citizens Freedom Foundation is founded to de program young people from cult influence.
Asian-American artists protest under-representation of Asian-American and other minority workers at the Confucius Plaza construction site in New York City.
Artists Space initiates UNAFFILIATED ARTISTS FILE, a slide file kept for visiting curators, etc.
LAURIE ANDERSON performs DUETS ON ICE, playing violin while standing in ice skates frozen in a melting block of ice.
CErA San Francisco announces 113 positions available to artists; 3,500 artists apply.
JEFFREY LEW initiates GROUP INDISCRIMINATE at 112 Greene Street, a once-a­ year exhibition in which space is allotted on a first~ome, first-served basis.
A shootout at the Symbionese Liberation Army Headquarters leaves six dead. ROBERT MUFfAlETTO organizes the Center for Exploratory and Perceptual Art in Buffalo, NY.
The FBI initiates a shootout with AIM members at Pine Ridge.
197 5 Washington Project for the Arts (WPA) is founded by ALICE DENNEY in Washing­ ton, DC.
Greenpeace begins its SAVE THE WHALES campaign.
The Artists' Poster Committee organizes A DECADE OF POLITICAL POSTERS 196&1975 to benefit the Attica Legal Defense Fund.
Hallwalls is founded in Buffalo, NY.
Creative Time sponsors RUCKUS MANHATTAN by RED and MIMI GROOMS at the Ruckus Construction Company, New York City.
Ant Farm produces THE ETERNAL FRAME, a doclHlrama about the KENNEDY assassination.
Movimiento Artistico Chicano (MARCH) is formed in Chicago.
GENO RODRIGUEZ forms the Alternative Museum, an artist-founded museum of con­ temporary art.
Two unsuccessful assassination attempts on President GERALD FORD. The first is by lYNmE FROMME, an associate of CHARLES MANSON; the second is by SARA JANE MOORE, a former FBI informant.
Detroit's FIFTH ESTATE, the second oldest American underground newspaper, is re­ vamped by an anarchist staff.
Ant Farm stages MEDIA BURN, driving a car through a wall of TV sets.
Minnesota Artists Exhibition Program is founded in Minneapolis. Once a year the

entire membership meets to vote on the LARGEST JURIED SHOW IN THE WORLD.
1976 Franklin Furnace, dedicated to artists' books, is founded by MARTHA WILSON in New
York City.
EMILE DE ANTONIO completes UNDERGROUND, a film about the Weather Under­ ground, thefocusofa huge FBI manhunt. The FBI subpoenas the film and DE ANTONIO.
Greenpeace opens a campaign aimed at ending the slaughter of baby seals by inter­ fering with the hunt and then sending back documentation of the kills.
The Social and Public Arts Resource Center, a multicultural arts center dedicated to public art, is founded in Los Angeles.
Artist MICHAEL ASHER takes down all the windows and doors in the Clocktower, ex­ posing the space to the elements.
JUDY BACA begins the GREAT WALL OF LOS ANGELES, a mural depicting Cal­ ifornia's multiracial history.
Neighborhood Art Programs National OrganiZing Committee (NAPNOC) is formed at an NEA Expansion Arts-funded retreat attended by some two dozen community ar­ tists at a United Auto Workers' center in Black Lake, MI.
Women's video groups in 14 cities exchange tapes in the VIDEOLETTERS project. The Clamshell Alliance conducts nonviolent occupations at the site of the proposed Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant.
The ART INDEX begins using "Art Galleries-non commercial" subject heading.
Representative JACK KEMP (R-NY) introduces Multiple Purpose Arts and Humanities legislation to provide a tax credit for money donated to organizations supporting the arts and humanities.
The Heresies Collective publishes the first issue of HERESIES MAGAZINE.
With Department of Labor funding, NAPNOC opens offices in Washington, San Francisco, and Knoxville to study CIT A community arts employment.
NEA WorkshopsjVisual Arts category becomes Workshops/Artists Spaces, a program "designed to encourage artists to devise modes of working together and to test new ideas." Special NEA guidelines for artists spaces are issued.
PICTURES, an exhibition curated by DOUGLAS CRIMP with work by JACK GOLDSTEIN, TROY BRAUNTUCH, SHERRIE LEVINE, ROBERT LONGO, and PHILLIP SMITH, opens at Artists Space, signaling the beginning of pictorial postmodernism.

Thousands of farmers drive tractors to Washington, DC to focus attention on the farm crisis.
FRED LONIDIER's THE HEALTH AND SAFETY GAME, a work about occupational health hazards, is installed at the Whitney Museum.
MARCIA TUCKER opens The New Museum in the lobby of the New School for Social Research.
LAICA makes all of its artists panels "advisory," giving staff increased curatorial power. Dedicated to experimental and socially conscious art, Collaborative Projects (COLAS) is founded by a group of artists in part because "The chances of a nonprofit institution getting a grant are 50 percent; an individual artist's is only three percent."

Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions (LACE) is organized by 13 artists. The staff
of two is paid through CETA funding.
SUZANNE LACY, LESLIE LABOWITZ, and a group of women artists stage THREE WEEKS IN MAY, a series of public consciousness-raising performances about rape in Los Angeles.
Atlatl, a Native-American arts organization, is founded in Phoenix, AZ.
112 Greene Street organizes a RUMMAGE SALE AND SKILLS AUCTION to bene­ fit the Heresies Collective.
Women and Their Work is organized in Austin, TX.
1978 Cincinnati Artists Group Effort (CAGE) is founded, operating without a space for over two years.
JENNY HOllER produces TRUISMS, a window display for Franklin Furnace.
CETA, whose annual budget reaches $75 million, funds over 10,000 artists and over 600 projects in 200 locations nationwide.
The Cultural Affairs Division of the State Department merges with the United States Information Agency, creating the International Communications Agency.
Love Canalis declared an ecological disaster area by President JIMMY CARTER. HARRISBURG, a Pennsylvaniacommunity-run magazine, publishes a fictional ac­ count of a disaster at the local Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. Later that year, WALTER CREITZ, president of Metropolitan Edison Corporation, complains to the De­ partment of Labor, which promptly cuts off all CErA funding to the magazine.
WPA organizes a PUNK ART exhibition.
The American Indian Community House Gallery/Museum is founded in New York City.
Fashion Moda is founded in the South Bronxto sponsor neighborhood art programs. Nine hundred eleven people commit mass suicide in JIM JONES's People's Temple Settlement in Guyana.
112 Greene Street is forced to relocate because of soaring SoHoreal estate costs. In Chicago. WARD CHRISTENSEN and RANDY SEUSS create the first computer bulletin board (BBS).
The first TAKE BACK THE NIGHT marches are organized to demand women's rights to safety in the ~treet.
The New York State Assembly threatens to end CAPS funding because of the art­ ist's book SEX OBJECTS, partially funded by CAPS funding and held by some members of the assembly to be objectionable.
THE NEW ARTSSPACE, the first national conference of alternative visual arts organi­ zations, is held at LAICA. LAWRENCE WEINER is the only unaffiliated artist invited to be a panel participant; 100 Los Angelesartists protest the lack of individual artist representation.
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING between the NEA, the NEH, and the State Department's International Communications Agency. Agency staff members are invited to observe closed peer panels and NEA National Council meetings.
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President REAGAN names FRANK HODSOLL chairman of the NEA.
REPORT OF THE PRESIDENTIAL TASK FORCE ON THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES recommends that the NEA's current structure of granting be maintained, but also rec­ ommends a stronger Federal Arts Council.
ART PAPERS, a magazine based in Atlanta, GA, begins publishing the newsletter ARTSPACE NEWS.
The Art Critics funding category, under fire because of "Marxist" tendencies, is sus­ pended by NEA staff in response to the Reagan Administration's proposed 50 percent cut in funding.
The WPA begins its STREETWORKS program of public art- "guerilla works in non­ art settings."
The Cherry Creek Theater Group hosts THE GATHERING in St. Peter, MN, a national convention of over 500 progressive artists.
The Justice Department announces plans to seek a reversal of Supreme Court deci­ sions on affirmative action and freedom of reproductive choice.
BEYOND SURVIVAL: NEW ARTSSPACES /I conference is funded by the NEA and held in New Orleansto "explore the peculiar situation of the new artsspace as it ap­ proaches institutionalization." Over 70 organizations participate. A key issue is the hierarchy set up between organizations run by administrators and those run by artists.
DEE DEE HALLECK begins PAPER TIGER TELEVISION, a public access TV show that debunks the media. The first guest is HERBERT SCHILLER, who" reads" the NEW YORK TIMES.
JOHN W. HINKLEY, acting out a scenario from the movie TAXI DRIVER, attempts to as­ sassinate President REAGAN.
Processed World Collective is founded and begins publication of PROCESSED WORLD magazine.
KRZYSZTOF WODICZKO projects a giant image of shaking hands onto a building at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

President REAGAN successfully proposes eliminating CETA public service employment programs, responsible for an estimated $200 million in jobs nationwide. Current arts workers are fired even before REAGAN's first budget is passed, since the Department of Labor rules that funds already committed can be used to pay unemployment benefits.
President REAGAN approves paramilitary and covert action to topple the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
KEITH HARING executes his first chalk graffiti drawings in New York City subways. Coca-Cola agrees to put $34 million into African-American businesses as a result of a national boycott by PUSH.
The Equal Rights Amendment, guaranteeing women equality under the CONSTITU­ TION, fails ratification.
Total number of degrees conferred by U.S. colleges in the fine and applied arts is 49,108.
1 982 Massive plant closings occur throughout the U.S.
The Gay Men's Health Crisis Center is organized in New York City to help fight the spread of AIDS.
New York City's Metropolitan Transit Authority rejects an anti-REAGAN poster by MICHAEL LEBRON titled TIRED OF THE JELL Y BEAN REPUBLIC?
The National Association of Artists' Organizations (NAAO) is incorporated with 100 founding members from across the U.S.following the NEW ARTSSPACES III conference held at the WP A.
The Association of American Cultures (T AAC) is formed to support culturally diverse arts through networking, increased public visibility, participation in government policy­ making, and implementation of ongoing programs.
A British team discovers a gaping hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica.
Over half a million demonstrators march in New York City for a nuclear freeze. Ar­ tists for Nuclear Disarmament is formed to create events and art for the march.
The VIETNAM MEMORIAL to U.S. soldiers killed or missing in the Vietnam War is dedicated in Washington, DC.
The J. Paul Getty Museum becomes the largest endowed museum in the world when it receives $1.1 billion from the Getty estate.
12 weeks.
The NEA Visual Arts Program ends its Services to the Field category and merges it
with the Artists Space category to create the Visual Artists Organizations category;
156 organizations receive $2,060,900 in grants.
1983 FRANK HODSOLL vetoes an NEA grant to the Heresies Collective and PAOLO that would have supported a proposed series of public forums featuring artists and critics HANS HAACKE, MARTHA ROSLER, SUZANNE LACY, and LUCY LIPPARD.
NAAO receives a $50,000 grant from the NEA to conduct a comprehensive survey of organizations that serve artists.
The New Museum stages CLASSIREDS: BIG PAGES (A WALK-AROUND MA­ GAZINE), by the Heresies Collective.
JESSE JACKSON forms the Rainbow Coalition.
NAPNOC changes its name to the Alliance for Cultural Oemocracy (ACO). Faced with long-term fundraising problems, ACO begins to operate as an all-volunteer network.
NAAO organizes a national conference, THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME, at Ran­ dolph Street Gallery, Chicago.
LARRY KRAMER publishes anAIDS awareness piece-1,112 AND COUNTING-in the NEW YORK NATIVE. A subsequent piece, 2,339, is published in the VILLAGE VOICE.
The U.S. invades Grenada.
Workers at the Weirton Steel Works in West Virginiabuy the plant from the National Steel Corporation.
1984 Border Arts Workshop-- Taller de Arte Fronterizo-is formed in San Diego, CAto make art about Mexican immigration issues.
CAGE organizes MAKING WAVES, a public-access cable TV show.
The Office of Management and Budget issues a regulation barring non profits from using federal grant monies to lobby, affect elections, or distribute "publicity or propaganda. II
Administrative Directive P-732 Personnel Security Program gives the NEA the right to proceed with security checks on employees and to prevent them from passing on "in­ formation, disclosure of which is prevented by law."
Greenpeace activists parachute off the smokestacks of coal-fired power plants in Ohio to protest government inaction on acid rain.
Mail artists protest RONNIE COHEN's curatorial censorship of entries to MAIL ART THEN AND NOW-MAIL ART INTERNATIONAL exhibition at Franklin Furnace.
Group Material produces a timeline of U.S.intervention in Latin America at P.S. 1. The CIA prepares an "assassination manual" for the Contras, the U.S.-backed guerilla army trying to overthrow Nicaragua's Sandinista government.
Vietnam veterans settle out of court with seven chemical companies over claims that the chemical defoliant Agent Orange, used during the Vietnam War, led to high rates of cancer and genetic damage.
The all-male Junior Chamber of Commerce, or Jaycees, is directed to accept women as members.
Artists Call Against U.S. Intervention in Central America organizes hundreds of exhibitions, performances, and events throughout the U.S.
GREGORY LEE JOHNSON is arrested for burning an AMERICAN FLAG in protest at the Republican National Convention.
Twenty-four bomb and arson attacks are carried out against abortion clinics in the U.S.The FBI refuses to investigate, stating that there is no evidence of organized activity.
JENNY HOLZER produces SIGN ON A TRUCK, using a portable computerized electronic sign to illustrate man-on-the-street comments about the presidential election.
198 5 The Center for Arts Criticism is formed in Minneapolis/St. Paul, funded princi­ pally by the Jerome Foundation.

Greenpeace produces a 6G-second TV spot of a fashion show in which a profusely bleeding fur coat splatters spectators.
NAAO adopts a 15-percent-minorjty exhibition guideline as an affirmative action program during the CULTURAL DIVERSITY CONFERENCE held at DiverseWorks in Houston.
The Guerilla Girls, an anonymous women's collective, is established to combat sex­ ism and racism in the art world.
VIDEO REFUSES opens at the Lab in San Franciscoas a protest of the SAN FRAN­ CISCO VIDEO FESTIVAL.
VIETNAM AND ITS AFTERMATH opens at Nexus Art Center in Atlanta.
THE WELL (WHOLE EARTH 'LECTRONIC LINK), an online telecommunications serv­ ice, begins operations. It hosts ACEN (ARTCOM ELECTRONIC NETWORK) the largest BBS dedicated to art information and issues.
After the second day of mass sabotage, 4,000 Jeep workers are sent home in Toledo, OH.
The U.S. withdraws from the World Court after that body orders the U.S. to stop its secret war against Nicaragua.
JOHN MALPEDE creates the Los Angeles Poverty Department (LAPD), a performance workshop of and for the homeless.
Gunshots are fired through the window of Supreme Court Justice HARRY BLACKMUN, principle author of the Roe v. Wade opinion.
Meatpackers Local P-9 strikes the Hormel plant in Austin, MNafter Hormel man­ agement asks for employee concessions despite posting record profits.
Members of The Order, a white supremacist group, are indicted for conspiracy and racketeering charges.
1986 INSIDE OUT: PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LlERTON, an exhibition of photographs made by prison inmates, is shown at Firebird Gallery in Alexandria, VA.
BRIAN WALLIS curates DAMAGED GOODS: DESIRE AND THE ECONOMY OF THE OBJECT at The New Museum. Many of the same artists appear in ENDGAME: REF­ ERENCE AND SIMULATION IN RECENT PAINTING AND SCULPTURE, organized by Boston's Institute of Contemporary Art.
MIKE ALEWITZ oversees the painting of an anti-management mural on Meatpackers Local P-9 headquarters in Austin, MN. It is immediately covered over.
U.S. warplanes bomb Libya.
The Meese Commission issues a report linking sexual imagery with sexual behavior and calling for stricter regulations on the distribution and sale of erotic materials.
The Supreme Court rules that homosexual relations, even in private between con­ senting adults, are not protected by the CONSTITUTION.
NAAO's UNTITLED conference is held at Hallwalls and CEPA in Buffalo.
PEL/CULAS: ARCHIVES OF LATIN AMERICAN CONFLICT 1889-1940, a film by DEE DEE HALLECK, PENEE BENDER, and ROBERT SUMMERS, is refused funding by the NEA because it lacks "aesthetic quality."
Dead Kennedys lead singer JELLO BIAFRA is tried for obsenity charges in Los Angeles. JACKIE PRESSER, president of the Teamsters Union, admits being an informant for the FBI.
The U.S. government's secret deal to illegally send weapons to Iran in return for the freeing of American hostages is made public. Later it is discovered that profits from this sale were illegally diverted to the CIA-backed Contras.
HOWARD GRIFFITH, a 23-year-old African American, is murdered by 12 white youths in Howard Beach, NY.
The NEA grants 129 artists' organizations a total of $1,874,500. NAAO receives $20,000.
198 7 SURVEILLANCE exhibition opens at LACE. The catalog includes directions on how to gain access to materials under the Freedom of Information Act.
AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is organized by LARRY KRAMER in New York City. The group's first demonstration takes place on Wall Street and targets the Federal Drug Administration and Burroughs Wellcome PhanTlaceuticals for the high cost and monopolization of AIr production.
Greenpeace volunteers cling to the U.S.S. Texas to call attention to the possible pre­ sence of nuclear weapons on the ship.

The Supreme Court rules that any foreign film entering the U.S.that could possibly sway public opinion must carry a "political propaganda" disclaimer.
The Guerilla Girls receive the "Susan B. Anthony Award" from the New York State Chapter of the National Organization of Women.
The UNCENSORED exhibition opens at Spaces, Cleveland.
The Guerilla Girls organize GUERILLA GIRLS SPEAK BACK TO THE WHITNEY at the Clocktower in New York City.
The Center for Arts Criticism is defunded by the NEA, ending all direct federal support to critics.
The New York Stock Market crashes in a record one-day decline.
Five hundred thousand participate in the NATIONAL GA Y AND LESBIAN MARCH on
Washington, DC. THE NAMES PROJECT, a cooperatively constructed quilt com- l
memorating those dead from AIDS, is displayed.
FRANK HODSOLL vetoes a project by JENNY HOLZER and others in which electronic bill-
boards flashing messages would be stationed in front ofthe White House, the Supreme
Court, and the Capitol Building.
Art Against AIDS forms in New York City to raise money for AIDS research.
KEITH PIASECZNY and MARILYN ZIMMERMAN organize the Urban Center for Photogra­ .Qby in Detroit. They begin DEMOLISHED BY NEGLECT, a project targeting political innaction in Detroit's inner city.
SILENCE=DEATH posters, protesting government inaction on the AIDS epidemic, begin to appear in New York City.
One hundred five artists' organizations receive a total of $1,793,000 from the NEA. NAAO receives $10,000.
1988 ELIZABETH SISCO, LOUIS HOCK, and DAVID AVALOS create bus posters that read WELCOME TO AMERICA'S RNEST TOURIST PLANTA nON during Super Bowl week in San Diego.
WILLIAM OLANDER offers The New Museum's window space to ACT UP, which pro­ duces an installation titled LET THE RECORD SHOW The artist collective Gran Fury emerges from the project.
The Center for Constitutional Rights releases documents that prove the FBI car­ ried out surveillance ofthe Committee in Solidarity with the People of EI Salvador (CISPES), SCLC, and other groups opposed to the Reagan Administration's sup­ port of the Contra War in Nicaragua.
Following a debate between Senator JESSE HELMS (R-NC) and Senator EDWARD KEN­ NEDY (D-MA), Congress defeats an ammendment calling for restrictions on sexually explicit representations in AID5-education materials issued by the Center for Dis­ ease Control (CDC).
The Detroit Council of the Arts demands the Urban Center of Photography return its $3000 grant on the grounds that the group was "defacing public property"-sta­ piing photographs onto condemned buildings.
Art Against AIDS stages art auctions in New York City and Los Angeles. MICHAEL TIDMUS's BBS artwork HEALTH AND MORALITY: A DESULTORY DIS­ COURSE goes online.
The fifth NAAO conference is held at LACE, Los Angeles.
Scriptwriters in the Writers Guild of America strike for 22 weeks over residuals and script control.
Group Material produces INSERTS, a collection of one-page projects by artists, and distributes it as an advertising supplement in the NEW YORK TIMES.
ACT UP shuts down the Federal Drug Administration in Washington, DC. Later that year they leaflet a Mets game at Shea Stadium with information on condoms.
Neoists stage FESTIVALS OF PLAGIARISM in San Francisco, Madison, WI, and London.
The FBI instigates the Library Awareness Program, requesting librarians to monitor li­ brary use and inform the FBI about potential Soviet spies.
ACT UP "zaps" NICHOLAS NIXON's MoMA exhibition PICTURES OF PEOPLE for its unsympathetic portrayal of people with AIDS.
The NEA demands the return of grant money from RED BASS, a journal based in New Orleans, after it publishes an issue entitled FOR PALESTINE that includes work by NOAN CHOMSKY, SUE COE, EDWARD SAID, and EQBAL AHMED, among others.
The NEA grants 105 artists' organizations a total of $1,793,000. NAAO receives $25,000 from the NEA to support a national conference, regional conferences, re­ lated publications, board meetings, and the bi-monthly BULLETIN.
1989 Art Strike Committees (established in New York City, San Francisco, Baltimore, etc.) call for an ART STRIKE, which is to begin in 1990 and last three years.
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM: THE MISSING LINK, an exhibition of nine African­ American abstract expressionists from the '40s and '50s, opens at the Jamaica Arts Center, Queens, NY.
ERIC BOGOSIAN's performance piece TALK RADIO becomes the basis for a Hollywood film directed by OLIVER STONE.
The Guerilla Girls create poster work for WHAT DOES SHE WANT?, an exhibition of feminist art organized by the First Bank System's Division of Visual Arts using works from the bank's collection.
EMILE DE ANTONIO completes MR. HOOVER AND I, a film about his 10,OOO-page file at the FBI.
The Supreme Court takes a first step toward overturning Roe v. Wade when it upholds a Missouri law forbidding public facilities and employees from participating in abor­ tion-related activities.
The FBI infiltrates Earth First! and arrests four members for attempting to disable electrical transmission lines to Arizona's Palo Verde nuclear power plant.
Installation Gallery commissions HOCK, SISCO, and AVALOS to create a billboard pre­ testing San Diego City Council's refusal to name its new convention center after MARTIN LUTHER KING. The City Council votes to cut Installation's funding from $42,000 to $0, but is forced to back down after an intense public outcry follows the decision.
The Machinists Union strikes Eastem Airlines. When pilots and flight attendants honor the picket line, Eastem declares bankruptcy under Chapter 11 guidlines. An unsuccessful attempt by Eastern pilots to purchase the airlines follows.
The Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound, AK, spilling 11 million gal­ lons of crude oil into the bay.
The Guerilla Girls of Houston organize ANOTHER DEAD HORSE, an installation at DiverseWorks in which 1,000 toy gorillas portray daily routines.

PROMISE OF PROGRESS: DIARY OF A NEIGHBORHOOD opens the new Aljira space in downtown Newark, NJ. The reception features $5 haircuts by master bar­ ber ALI MITCHEL.
United Mine Workers strike Pittston Coal Co. after Pittston demands concessions and refuses to sign an industry-wide contract.
The PATHFINDER MURAL is completed in New York City. Captioned "A World without Borders," the mural depicts a group of revolutionary leaders from MARX to MALCOLM X. It is immediately defaced.
Veterans' groups protest outside the School of the Art Institute in Chicagoover artist DREAD SCOTT's HOW TO DISPLAY AN AMERICAN FLAG, in which an AMERI­ CAN FLAG is laid on the ground. The Illinoislegislature reduces grants to the school from $130,000 to $1.
The American Family Association calls for the ouster of federal officials responsible for the funding of the exhibit AWARDS IN THE VISUAL ARTS organized by the South­ eastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA) because it contains ANDRES SERRANO's photograph PISS CHRIST.
Randolph Street Gallery presents THE WHOLE WORLD IS STILL WATCHING to mark the 20-year anniversary of the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
Representative DICK ARMEY (R-TX) sends a letter signed by 107 congressmen to the NEA protesting the SECCA grant and the exhibition ROBERT MAPPLETHORPE: THE PERFECT MOMENT, organized by the Philadelphia Institute of Contemporary Art.
The Corcoran Gallery cancels the MAPPLETHORPE exhibition, stating that they do not want to adversely affect the NEA's congressional support. Gay-rights activists and artists picket the museum.
The sixth NAAO conference is held in Minneapolis.
ROBERT MAPPLETHORPE: THE PERFECT MOMENT opens at the WPA. Record crowds are reported.
Art Against AIDS organizes ART AGAINST AIDS ON THE ROAD, a public art exhibi­ tion of signs and billboards in San Francisco. The project tours nationally.
The N EA appropriations bill passes the H ouse--a $45,000 cut (representing the total amount awarded for the SECCA and MAPPLETHORPE shows) is recommended.

Three thousand attend the ANARCHISTS GATHERING in San Francisco. ACD adopts a CULTURAL BILL OF RIGHTS.
NAAO organizes a massive letter-writing campaign in protest over proposed NEA cuts. The Senate adopts an NEA appropriations bill that places a five-year ban on NEA grants to SECCA and the Philadelphia ICA, transfers $400,000 in funds from the Visual Arts Program to other categories, and adopts an amendment by Senator JESSE HELMS that bans NEA monies for "obscene or indecent" art.
The Michigan Council for the Arts approves a DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES that condemns censorship of the arts.
Boy With Arms Akimbo plasters prints of male nudes by JOEL-PETER WITKIN, MAN RAY, and WILHELM VON GLOEDEN to the columns of the San Francisco Federal Building.
San Francisco's Capp Street Gallery hosts BORDER AXES, an alternative infor­ mation network operated by the Border Arts Workshop(Taller de Arte Fronterizo. Fax, telephone, wire service, and postal service are employed to link the Latino and Anglo-Saxon communities in cities across the U.S.
A compromised version of the NEA appropriations bill passes both the House and Senate with a slightly weaker version of the Helms Amendment banning obscene art. It states: "None of the funds authorized to be appropriated for the National Endow­ ment for the Arts or the National Endowment for the Humanities may be used to promote, disseminate, or produce materials which in the judgement of the National Endowments may be be considered obscene, including but not limited to depictions of sadomasochism, homoeroticism, the sexual exploitation of children, or individuals engaged in sex acts which, when taken as a whole, do not have serious literary, artis­ tic, political, or artistic value."
JOHN FROHNMAYER is named chairman of the NEA by President GEORGE BUSH. Visual Aids sponsors A DA Y WITHOUT ART, a national event memorializing those dead of AIDS.
NEA chair FROHNMAYER recommends that Artists Space return NEA monies used for the exhibition WITNESSES: AGAINST OUR VANISHING, which deals with AIDS. Under intense pressure from the arts community, he later changes his mind and re­ instates the grant.

The exhibition A FESTIVAL OF CENSORSHIP is held at Gallery X in Phoenix, AZ. LEONARD BERNSTEIN declines his NATIONAL MEDAL OF ARTS AWARD in protest over the threatened defunding of the WITNESSES exhibition.
MARK PASCALE and DAN PETERMAN organize THE END OF THE WEATHER AS WE KNOW ITfor the Randolph Street Gallery in Chicago. In the show, artists NEWTON HARRISON and HELEN MEYER HARRISON, RACHEL GREEN, JNO COOK, and others consider the possibility that the earth's climate could be permanently transformed by en­ vironmental damage.
Estimates of homeless people in the U.S. run as high as three million persons.
1990 The ART STRIKE begins.
Greyhound bus drivers go on strike. When the company hires "permanent replace­ ments" violence ensues.
The U.S. invades Panama.
The National Campaign for Freedom of Expression, an artists lobbying group, is founded in Washington, DC.
Congress decides to bail out the failing savings and loan industry costing U.S. tax­ payers billions of dollars.
All NEA grants for 1989 restrict grantees from using funds to produce "homoerotic art," etc.
Participants in ARTS ADVOCACY DA Y listen to speakers, lobby congressional dele­ gates, and put on a media show in Washington, DC.
DENNIS BARRIE, director of the Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center, is charged with violating obsenity laws when the museum opens the MAPPLETHORPE retrospective.
The National Assembly of State Arts Agencies backs down on its initial proposal that 60 percent of NEA funding be redistributed to state art agencies.
The New School for Social Research takes the NEA to court to test the constitu­ tionality of its obscenity clause.
Artist DAVID WOJNAROWICZ sues the American Family Association for misusing and misrepresenting his work in its anti-NEA pamphlets.
On a tip from a photo lab, the FBI breaks into photographer JOCK STURGES's home to search for photographs made of friends and their children at a nude beach.
Right-wing editorialists ROWLAND EVANS and ROBERT NOVAK assail the work of perform­ ance artist KAREN RNLEY, resulting in her installation at Franklin Furnace being picketed. The New York City Fire Marshall closes the gallery on a technicality.
PAT ROBERTSON's Christian Coalition budgets $200,000 for an ad campaign intended to abolish the NEA.
THE DECADE SHOW: FRAMEWORKS OF IDENTITY IN THE 1980S opens at The New Museum, the Studio Museum in Harlem, and the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art.
NEA chair FROHNMAYER vetoes four individual artist grants-for KAREN RNLEY, TIM MILLER, HOLLY HUGHES, and JOHN A.ECK-on the grounds that their art cannot be judged on artistic merit alone but must be judged within the "political realities."
Gay/Lesbian March Activists call for a boycott of Chiquita bananas because the company's major shareholder, the LINDNER family, supports Hamilton County's 01>­ scenity prosecution of the Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center.
The Federal Communications Commission rules that it will enforce a 24-hour ban on the broadcasting of "indecent" programs by radio and television stations.
Hoping to avoid an NEA-type showdown with congressional conservatives, the CDC vol­ untarily adopts rules limiting explicit details in federally-funded AIDS-education materials.
A federal prosecutor in Portland, MA confiscates a photograph by WALTER CHAPPELL that shows the artist naked and holding his infant son next to his erect penis.
IN MEMORIAM, a window painting by CARLOS GUTIERREZ-SOLANA, is ordered covered over by Richmond, VA's commonwealth attorney. 1708 East Main Gallery decides to fight the order.
The House votes 297-123 to penalize the University of the District of Columbia $1.6 million, the amount the university used to install JUDY CHICAGO's THE DINNER PARTY.
After a court challenge by several newspapers, NEA chair FROHNMAYER opens the National Council on the Arts grant review meeting to the public for the first time in NEA history. The council recommends that chairman FROHNMAYER stop requiring NEA­__ funded artists to sign anti-obscenity oaths.